Wednesday, April 11, 2012

NVOCC (Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier)

Currently, the carrier’s definition, the general is “a contract of carriage with the consignor or the person the actual transportation of people.” Agents into the field of international freight transport, to carry out a single mode or multimodal transport business, with clients as a contract of carriage, and issuing the transport document (FCT, FBL, etc.), responsible for transport, which has become a carrier . However, because they generally do not own or control means of transport can only transport through the carrier has entered into a contract of carriage, the actual transportation by others, such carrier known as NVOCC. NVOCC business only in the actual contract carrier, but the actual completion of the transport carrier is the actual carrier.

NVOCC business

As the economic, technological practice different, whether at home or abroad, non-vessel operating carrier very different scope, and do some non-vessel carrier cargo customs clearance, cargo transfer, short-haul, freight forwarding and distribution , and a variety of different modes of transport booking agency business, some of which apply only to one or more business.
The principal activities of NVOCC

1. As a carrier and shipper for the carriage of goods contract, the issue of shipping documents (bills of lading, consignment note), and to accept goods from place to place of destination, transportation for delivery of the goods.

2. As a general cargo carrier organizations, the entire transport, development of the whole transportation plan and organize the implementation of activities.

3. Requirements and the goods to the shipper, the specific conditions of contact with the actual carrier will transport (booking).

4. Received from the hands of the shipper of goods, organization or agency to export to Hong Kong Transport, a contract of carriage (in my name), and to deliver the goods to the ocean carriers have been booking. In the transition process, on behalf of the owner to complete the declaration, inspection, Tally and other procedures.

5. If necessary, the goods for storage and the database business.

6. In the hands of the port from the ocean carrier to accept goods, the delivery of the goods to the consignee. The owner is concerned, non-vessel carrier delivers the goods to transport, compared to the traditional carrier transport in the formalities to be much more convenient and can save freight forwarders commissioned this part.

According to the scope and nature of business is different from non-vessel carrier can be divided into the following three categories:

1. Carrier type
Such kind of shipping carrier is determined in their transport routes to carry out transport activities, to accept the shipper of the goods and issue bills of lading, the goods in transit loss, damage responsibility. In actual operations, he is a contract carrier, not by yourself transportation, only the goods to the actual carrier transport, and to accept the goods at destination, delivery of goods to the consignee.

2. Forwarders type
Such NVOCC specializing in transit, goods in transit and the major destination, with its own branch (office), or agents, from the hands of the shipper or the carrier to accept the land transport of goods, issuing bills of lading, Then apply for continuation transportation, transit, delivery, the carrier delivers the goods to the sea, from sea to complete maritime transport carrier in the port of destination to receive the goods, to raise the consignee. The type and carrier type of the main difference is that it is not limited to transportation routes, not only to choose the appropriate carrier, can also choose the most suitable transport routes. Currently, many shipping companies Zai canvassing area, pairs of non-vessel carrier Jiaoda transfer of dependence, therefore, Zhuanyun people canvassing in the Wei Zi Ji, Jingyingzhuanyun also actively De Zuowei agent, representative carrier people go through to accept delivery of goods, loading, unloading, care to do, collecting freight and other services, and derive the difference between receipts and shipping.

3. Agent-based
Class NVOCC in the cargo doors to take different after the owner, in principle, to provide transportation services directly to the owner, instead of using the “wholesale” approach, by mode of transport and direction, to transport people or type bulk carrier type The non-vessel carrier, bill of lading issued by them. Since this approach has obvious agent characteristics, so called agent-based. NVOCC act as a broker in recent years the emergence of a form of transport services, this type of non-vessel operating carrier generally do not engage in specific activities and the actual services business, the organization engaged only in transportation, goods distribution, transportation the choice of means and transport routes and services to improve their income mainly intermediary fees and because the “wholesale” freight differences arising.

Thursday, February 9, 2012

MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet)

MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) that safety data sheet can also be translated into technical specifications or chemical safety data on chemical safety instructions. Is the chemical manufacturers and importers of chemicals used to clarify the physical and chemical characteristics (such as the PH value, flash point, flammable, reaction activity, etc.) as well as the health of the users (such as carcinogenic, teratogenic, etc.) possible harm a document.

In European countries, MSDS, also known as security technology / data specifications SDS (Safety Data sheet). International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 11014 by SDS terminology, but the United States, Canada, Australia and many Asian countries have adopted the term MSDS.

MSDS is the chemical production or sale of business required by law to provide for the chemical characteristics of a comprehensive legal document. It provides the physical and chemical parameters of chemicals, blasting performance, health hazards, safe storage, disposal leak, emergency measures and laws and regulations relating to the content 16. MSDS by the manufacturer in accordance with the relevant rules of their own preparation. However, in order to ensure the accuracy of regulatory reports.

MSDS chemical product safety data, including: chemical product and company identifier; compound information or components; the proper use or misuse of the chemical hazards that may occur when there are symptoms and human health hazard identification; emergency treatment instructions and prescription ; chemical fire guidance, including product ignited the explosion limits and the application of fire-fighting materials; order for the harm caused by accidental leak minimizing measures to be taken; safe handling and storage measures; reduce the exposure of workers and self-protection products devices and measures; chemical products, physical and chemical properties; change the chemical stability, and react with other substances in the conditions; the toxicity of chemical substances and compounds of information; chemical substances in ecological information, including material on the flora and fauna and the environment may cause effects; the material handling recommendations; basic transport classification information; with the substance laws and regulations related to the annotations; other information.

The role of MSDS

Safety data sheet as product safety information passed the most basic technical document, its main role is reflected in:
  1. To provide information about the hazards of chemicals, chemical products to protect users
  2. To ensure safe operation, operating procedures for the development of dangerous chemicals to provide technical information
  3. To provide emergency assistance and emergency help to deal with the technical information
  4. Guide the production of chemical safety, security, distribution and safe use of
  5. Is the registration of chemicals important foundation and source of information
MSDS contents

World trade, whether domestic or international trade, the seller must provide product descriptive legal documents. As individual countries, and even the states of chemicals management and the trade is not the same as legal documents, and some changes every month, so if the MSDS provided incorrect or incomplete information, will face legal accountability. Therefore, the preparation of MSDS is a measure of the quality of a company’s strength, image and management is an important symbol.

1. Meet U.S. OSHA requirements for MSDS should have the following
The first: Contact the manufacturer and
The second: Hazardous Chemicals Components
Third: Physical and Chemical Properties
Fourth: Combustion and Explosion Data
Fifth: Reactivity Data
Sixth: Health hazard data
Seventh: the safe operation and use
Eighth: protection method

2. Meet the requirements of the Canadian WHMIS MSDS should have the following
The first: the product name and manufacturer information
The second: Hazardous Chemicals Components
Third: Physical characteristics
Fourth: Fire or Explosion Data
Fifth: Reactivity Data
Sixth: toxicology
Seventh: preventive measures
Eighth: First Aid
Ninth: the preparation of information

3. American Standards Association
ANSI and ISO international standards body proposed the implementation of the MSDS content
The first: chemical name and manufacturer information
The second: the chemical composition of information
The third: Hazard Information
Fourth: First aid measures
Fifth: Fire Fighting Measures
Sixth: Emergency disclosure
Seventh: Handling and Storage
Eighth: Exposure controls and personal protection measures
Ninth: Physical and Chemical Properties
10th entry: Stability and reactivity
Eleventh: Toxicological Information
12th entry: Ecological Information
13th entry: Waste Disposal
14th entry: Transport Information
15th entry: Regulatory Information
16th item: Other information

Monday, January 30, 2012

ISPM - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures

"International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM) is an International Phytosanitary Measure developed by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) as part of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization’s global programme of policy and technical assistance in plant quarantine. This programme makes available to FAO Members and other interested parties these standards, guidelines and recommendations to achieve international harmonization of phytosanitary measures, with the aim to facilitate trade and avoid the use of unjustifiable measures as barriers to trade."

Cargo shipment using wooden packing have to use ISPM No.15 (International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15) that directly addresses the need to treat wood materials of a thickness greater than 6mm, used to ship products between countries. ISPM 15 main purpose is to prevent the international transport and spread of disease and insects that could negatively affect plants or ecosystems. ISPM affects all wood packaging material (pallets, crates, dunnages, etc.) requiring that they be debarked and then heat treated or fumigated with methyl bromide and stamped or branded, with a mark of compliance. This mark of compliance is colloquially known as the "wheat stamp". Products exempt from the ISPM 15 are made from alternative material, like paper, plastic or wood panel products (i.e. hardboard, plywood and Oriented strand board).

ISPM No. 1 ( 1993)
Principles of plant quarantine as related to international trade

ISPM No. 2 ( 1995)
Guidelines for pest risk analysis

ISPM No. 3 (2005)
Guidelines for the export, shipment, import and release of biological control agents
and other beneficial organisms

ISPM No. 4 (1995)
Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas

ISPM No. 5 (2005)
Glossary of phytosanitary terms

ISPM No. 6 (1997)
Guidelines for surveillance

ISPM No. 7 (1997)
Export certification system

ISPM No. 8 (1998)
Determination of pest status in an area

ISPM No. 9 (1998)
Guidelines for pest eradication programmes

ISPM No. 10 (1999)
Requirements for the establishment of pest free places of production and pest free production sites

ISPM No. 11 (2004)
Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests, including analysis of environmental risks and living modified organisms

ISPM No. 12 (2001)
Guidelines for phytosanitary certificates

ISPM No. 13 (2001)
Guidelines for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action

ISPM No. 14 (2002)
The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management

ISPM No. 15 (2002)
Guidelines for regulating wood packaging material in international trade

ISPM No. 16 (2002)
Regulated non-quarantine pests: concept and application

ISPM No. 17 (2002)
Pest reporting

ISPM No. 18 (2003)
Guidelines for the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary measure

ISPM No. 19 (2003)
Guidelines on lists of regulated pests

ISPM No. 20 (2004)
Guidelines for a phytosanitary import regulatory system

ISPM No. 21 (2004)
Pest risk analysis for regulated non-quarantine pests

ISPM No. 22 (2005)
Requirements for the establishment of areas of low pest prevalence

ISPM No. 23 (2005)
Guidelines for inspection

ISPM No. 24 (2005)
Guidelines for the determination and recognition of equivalence of phytosanitary measures
Part I (519 KB)
Part II (638 KB)
Download full PDF version 1131 kb

For check the latest position of all the ISPMs on the IPPC web site:

Friday, January 27, 2012

History of Container & Ship Container

Container and Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. They form a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport.

There are two main types of dry cargo: bulk cargo and break bulk cargo. Bulk cargoes, like grain or coal, are transported unpackaged in the hull of the ship, generally in large volume. Break-bulk cargoes, on the other hand, are transported in packages, and are generally manufactured goods. Before the advent of containerization in the 1950s, break-bulk items were loaded, lashed, unlashed and unloaded from the ship one piece at a time. However, by grouping cargo into containers, 1,000 to 3,000 cubic feet (28 to 85 m3) of cargo, or up to about 64,000 pounds (29,000 kg), is moved at once and each container is secured to the ship once in a standardized way. Containerization has increased the efficiency of moving traditional break-bulk cargoes significantly, reducing shipping time by 84% and costs by 35%. As of 2001, more than 90% of world trade in non-bulk goods is transported in ISO containers. In 2009, almost one quarter of the world's dry cargo was shipped by container, an estimated 125 million TEU or 1.19 billion metric tons worth of cargo.

Container vessels owe their existence to an American trucker by the name of Malcom McLean. In 1931, McLean purchased his first truck to send and pick up loads to and from vessels in various ports. Malcolm P. McLean, the "Father of Containerization", had the idea of rationalizing goods transport by avoiding the constant loading and unloading from one means of transport to another way back at the end of the 1930s at the port of Hoboken, when still operating as a small-scale hauler. To start with, McLean would load complete trucks onto ships, in order to transport them as close as possible to their destination. The development of standardized containers and trailers, moved by tractors, made it possible to ship just the trailers with the containers, so saving on space and costs. Later, the trailers were also left behind and the ships transported just the containers.

The earliest container ships were converted tankers, built up from surplus T2 tankers after World War II. In 1951 the first purpose-built container vessels began operating in Denmark, and between Seattle and Alaska. In 1955, McLean built his company, McLean Trucking into one of USA’s biggest freighter fleets. In 1955, he purchased the small Pan Atlantic Steamship Company from Waterman Steamship and adapted its ships to carry cargo in large uniform metal containers. The first container ship in the United States was the Ideal X, a T2 tanker, owned by McLean as the first ship designed to carry only containers is the "Maxton", a converted tanker, which could carry sixty containers as deck cargo, in April 1956. This left Newark on 26th April 1956 carrying 58 containers between Newark, New Jersey and Houston, Texas on its first voyage and a new revolution in modern shipping resulted.

Container vessels eliminate the individual hatches, holds and dividers of the traditional general cargo vessels. The hull of a typical container ship is a huge warehouse divided into cells by vertical guide rails. These cells are designed to hold cargo in pre-packed units – containers.

Shipping containers are usually made of steel, but other materials like aluminium, fibreglass or plywood are also used. They are designed to be entirely transferred to and from trains, trucks or trailers to and from a ship. There are several types of containers and they are categorised according to their size and functions.

Another decade passed before the first container ship moored in Europe. The first container on German soil was set down by the "Fairland" at Bremer √úberseehafen on 6th May 1966. The first containers used by SeaLand in Northern Europe were 35' ASA containers, i.e. they were constructed to American standards. In other regions, 27' ASA containers and other ASA dimensions were often used. Shipowners in Europe and Japan quickly recognized the advantages of the container and also invested in the new transport technology.

Since American standards could only be applied with difficulty to conditions in Europe and other countries, an agreement was eventually reached with the Americans after painstaking negotiations. The resulting ISO standards provided for lengths of 10', 20', 30' and 40'. The width was fixed at 8' and the height at 8' and 8' 6". For land transport within Europe, agreement was reached on a 2.50 m wide inland container, which is mainly used in combined road/rail transport operations.

The majority of containers used worldwide today comply with the ISO standard, with 20'- and 40'-long containers predominating. For some years, the ISO standard has come repeatedly under pressure. As stowage factors increase for most goods, many forwarders want longer, wider and higher containers, preferably all at once. Some shipowners have given in to the pressure and containers of dimensions larger than provided for by the ISO standard are now encountered distinctly more frequently. "Jumbo" containers of 45' and 48' in length, widths of 8'6" (2.60 m) and heights of 9'6" (2.90 m) have been in existence for some years. Efforts to build even larger containers, e.g. 24' (7.43 m) and 49' (14.40 m) boxes 2.60 m wide and 2.90 m high, are mostly confined to the USA. Even 53' long containers have been approved for use for some time throughout the USA, while some states will even allow 57'. In Europe and on other continents, narrower roads are a limiting factor. Developing countries are understandably against changing the standards. More details are given in the section entitled "Container dimensions and weights"

Today, approximately 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container, and modern container ships can carry up to 15,000 twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU). As a class, container ships now rival crude oil tankers and bulk carriers as the largest commercial vessels on the ocean.

Coming back to McLean’s invention, while it is a well established fact that containerization caused a revolution in the world of shipping its introduction did not have an easy passage. Shipping lines, railway (railroad in the US) companies and trade unions vehemently opposed and tried to block the use of containerised ships. It took ten years of legal battles before container ships would be pressed into international service. In 1966, a container liner service from USA to the Dutch city of Rotterdam commenced.

Containerization changed not only the face of shipping but it also revolutionized world trade as well. A container ship can be loaded and unloaded in a few hours compared to days in a traditional cargo vessel. This, besides cutting labor costs, has reduced shipping times between points to a great extent, for example it takes a few weeks instead of months for a consignment to be delivered from India to Europe and vice versa. It has also resulted in less breakage due to less handling and there is less danger of cargo shifting during a voyage. As containers are sealed and only open at the destination, pilferage and theft levels have been greatly reduced.

Exporters load (stuff) their merchandise in boxes that are provided by the shipping companies. They are then delivered to the docks by road, rail or a combination of both for loading on to container ships. Prior to containerization, huge gangs of men would spend hours fitting various items of cargo into different holds.

Cranes, installed either on the pier or on the ship, are used to place containers on board the ship. When the hull is loaded, additional containers are stacked on the deck.

Containerization has lowered shipping costs and decreased shipping time, and this has in turn helped the growth of international trade. Cargo that once arrived in cartons, crates, bales, barrels or bags now comes in factory sealed containers, with no indication to the human eye of their contents, except for a product code that machines can scan and computers trace. This system of tracking has been so exact that a two week voyage can be timed for arrival with an accuracy of under fifteen minutes.

It has resulted in such revolutions as on time guaranteed delivery and just in time manufacturing. Raw materials arrive in factories in sealed containers less than an hour before they are required in manufacture, resulting in reduced inventory costs.

Today's largest container ships measure almost 400 metres (1,300 ft) in length. They carry loads equal to the cargo carrying capacity of sixteen to seventeen pre WWII freighter ships.